UP Board Class 12 English Prose solution Chapter 6 Women’s Education-Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
Women's Education-Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
सम्पूर्ण पाठ का हिन्दी रूपान्तरण
आप एक ऐसे युग में रह रहे हैं जिसमें स्त्रियों के लिए सामाजिक कार्य, सार्वजनिक तीवन तथा प्रशासन के लिए बहुत अवसर है । समाज को अनुशासित मन व संयमित आचरण वाली स्त्रियों की आवश्यकता है । जिस प्रकार का भी कार्य आप करें, उसे आप ईमानदारी और अनुशासित मन से करें । तब आप अपने कार्य में सफल होंगे और आनंद प्राप्त करेंगे ।
वास्तव में हमारे देश में जहाँ तक लड़कियों की शिक्षा का सम्बन्ध है, इसका प्रसार अधिक विस्तृत नहीं है । अतः प्रत्येक संस्था, जो लड़कियों की शिक्षा के लिए योगदान करती है, मान्यता और प्रोत्साहन पाने योग्य है । परन्तु मेरी प्रबल इच्छा है कि लड़कियों को जिस प्रकार की शिक्षा दी जाए वह केवल विस्तृत ही न हो वरन् गहन भी हो । हमारी शिक्षा में चिन्तन की कमी है । हम विद्वान् और दक्ष भले ही बन जाएँ परन्तु यदि हमारी जीवन में किसी प्रकार का उद्देश्य नहीं है तो हमारा जीवन अंधकारमय, त्रुटिपूर्ण और कटु हो जाता है । गीता का कथन है- निश्चयात्मक बुद्धि एक ही है । वास्तव में सुसंस्कृत मस्तिष्क में एकाग्रता और उस अकेले उद्देश्य के प्रति समर्पण होना है । संस्कृतिहीन मस्तिष्क के लिए समस्त जीवन अनेक दिशाओं में बिखरा रहता है- एक साथ विभिन्न उद्देश्य लिए हुए और अनन्त । अत: यह आवश्यक है कि जो शिक्षा आप इन संस्थाओं में प्राप्त करें वह आपको केवल ज्ञान व दक्षता ही न दे वरन् जीवन में एक निश्चित उद्देश्य भी प्रदान करे । यह उद्देश्य क्या हो– इसे आपको स्वयं निर्धारित करना होगा । कहा जाता है कि विद्या विवेक देती है, विमर्शरूपिणी (समीक्षा, आलोचना करने वाली) विद्या आपको सत्य और उचित का ज्ञान देती है और आपको असत्य से बचने में सहायता करती है । अतः आपको यह जानने का प्रयत्न करना चाहिए कि इस पीढ़ी में आप से किस बात की अपेक्षा की जाती है । वह उद्देश्य जो शताब्दियों पहले उचित था आज हमारे देश तथा संसार की तेजी से बदलती हुई परिस्थितियों को देखकर उचित नहीं हो सकता । अत: जो उद्देश्य आप अपने जीवन में चुनें । वह वर्तमान पीढ़ी की सामयिक आवश्यकताओं के अनुकूल होना चाहिए ।
प्रत्येक बार हम किसी कार्य को आरम्भ करते समय ईश्वर का भजन करते हैं और शांति, शांति, शांति कहकर समाप्त करते हैं । शिक्षकों और विद्यार्थियों से अपेक्षा की जाती है कि वे एक-दूसरे के प्रति घृणा से दूर रहें ।
दया वह गुण है जो पुरुषों की अपेक्षा स्त्रियों की मुख्य विशेषता है । कुछ ही समय पहले मैंने एक पुस्तक पढ़ी थी सिमें नारे के पतन की की चर्चा की गई थी । उसमें लिखा था कि नारे का पतन इसलिए हुआ है क्योंकि उसमें दया की मात्रा में कमी आई है । दूसरे शब्दों में स्त्री का स्वाभाविक गुण दया है । यदि आपमें दया नहीं है तो आप मानव ही नहीं हैं । अत: प्रत्येक मानव के लिए विचारशीलता (लिहाज), दया और सहानुभूति के गुण का विकास करना परमावश्यक है । इन गुणों के बिना हम केवल नर पशु हैं, इससे अधिक नहीं ।
एक प्रसिद्ध श्लोक है जो हमें बताता है कि संसार एक विषवृक्ष है । इस अपूर्ण संसार में दो फल अनुकरणीय गुण वाले हैं । वे हैं अपने महान् ग्रन्थों का अध्ययन तथा महान् विचारकों का संसर्ग (विचार-विमर्श) । ये ही दो बातें हैं जो मनुष्य के मस्तिष्क तथा ह्रदय को अच्छा बना सकती हैं । मेरी परम अभिलाषा है कि हमें अपने महान् ग्रन्थों का और अन्य सभी देशों के महान ग्रन्थों का भी जो हमें विरासत में प्राप्त हुए है अध्ययन करना चाहिए । उपनिषद् के एक छोटे संवाद में एक प्रश्न पूछा गया है : ‘अच्छे जीवन का सार क्या है ? शिक्षक उत्तर देते है : ‘क्या आपने उत्तर नहीं सुना ? ‘ तालियों की तड़ित जैसी गर्जन हुई : दा दा दा । तुरन्त शिक्षक ने स्पष्ट किया कि ये थे अच्छे जीवन के सार-दम, दान, दया । ये ही अच्छे जीवन के आवश्यक तत्व हैं । आप में दम (आत्मनियन्त्रण या संयम) होना चाहिए जो मानव की पहचान है । रामायण में जब लक्ष्मण वन गमन करने वाले होते हैं तो उनकी माता उनसे कहती हैं : ‘राम को अपने पिता दशरथ जैसा मानना, सीता को मेरे जैसा (अपनी माता के समान) मानना, वन को अयोध्या जैसा मानना; अब जाओ मेरे प्रिय पुत्र, जाओ । ‘
हमारे महान् ग्रन्थों में अनेक प्रेरणास्पद गाथाएँ है जो हमारे भीतर उच्च नैतिकता का संचार करेगी और हमारे लिए वे नियम निर्धारित करेगी जिन पर हमें आचरण करना चाहिए ।
हमें अच्छी नारियाँ दो, हमारी सभ्यता महान् हो जाएगी ।
हमें अच्छी माताएँ दो, हमारा राष्ट्र महान् हो जाएगा । जब आप शिक्षा के विषय में बात करते हैं तो आपके सामने कई लक्ष्य होते हैं; जिन लोगों को शिक्षा दी जाती है उन्हें उस संसार का ज्ञान दो जिसमें वे रहते हैं-विज्ञान, इतिहास और भूगोल आपको वह ज्ञान प्राप्त कराते हैं; आप लोगों को कोई तकनीकी ज्ञात प्राप्त करने का प्रशिक्षण भी दें जिससे वे जीविकोपार्जन कर सकें । अब भी समस्त संसार में शिक्षा के ये ही लक्ष्य स्वीकार किए जाते हैं : उस संसार का ज्ञान जिसमें रहते हो और तकनीकी योग्यता जिससे जीविकोपार्जन कर सको । परन्तु हमारे देश की संस्थाओं में जिस प्रकार की शिक्षा दी जाती है उसकी विशेषता क्या है ? हमने सुना है कि शिक्षा का मुख्य उद्देश्य केवल योग्यता या ज्ञान प्राप्त करना ही नहीं है वरन् एक उच्च जीवन में प्रवेश करना भी है, उस संसार में प्रवेश जो स्थान और समय से ऊपर है, यद्यपि बाद वाला संसार पहले वाले संसार को प्रकाशित और प्रेरित करता है । (अर्थात् वह पारलौकिक संसार इस भौतिक संसार को आलोकित कर देता है और इसमें जीवन फूंकता है । ) शिक्षा का मुख्य उद्देश्य यही रहा है । कुछ शताब्दियों तक हमने अपनी नारियों की उपेक्षा की । परन्तु हमारी परम्परा इससे कुछ भिन्न रही है
पुरा कल्पेषु नारीनाम्, मंदिरा वंदना निश्चितः अध्यापनांच वेदानाम् गायत्री वाचनाम् तथा ।
(प्राचीनकाल में नारियों द्वारा मन्दिर में पूजा करना, वेदों का पठन-पाठन करना और गायत्री के मंत्र का उच्चारण करना स्वीकृत था । )
प्राचीनकाल में हमारी स्त्रियों का उपनयन (यज्ञोपवीत) संस्कार होता था । उन्हें वेदों के अध्ययन का अधिकार था । उन्हें गायत्री मन्त्र के जाप का भी अधिकार था । ये सब कार्य हमारी महिलाओं के लिए स्वीकार्य थे । परन्तु हमारी सभ्यता पतन की ओर उन्मुख हो गई और उस पतन का एक मुख्य कारण स्त्रियों की पराधीनता है ।
स्वतंत्रता के पश्चात् महात्मा गांधी के अथक प्रयासों के कारण हमारे देश में एक क्रांति हुई है और स्त्रियाँ अपने अधिकारों को पाने लगी है |
EXERCISE Explanation Explain with reference to the context the following:
1 — You are living in ……………………………….. joy of your work.
Reference to the context: These lines are extracted from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by the first vice president of India S. Radhakrishnan. In this passage the author is talking about the opportunities for women in various fields.
Explanation: In these lines the author says that these many and better opportunities for women presently in various fields like social work, public life and administration. Society needs women who are disciplined and work in restrained way. Whatever work they do, it should be done with honesty and disciplined mind. It will lead to success and get pleasure of work.
2- Actually in our …………. …………… blundering and bitter.
Reference to the context: These lines are taken from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by S. Radhakrishanan. In these lines, the author says that girls education in India is not concerned and valued much.
Explanation: The author says that in India people are not concerned and aware about the girls education. Therefore energy school or institution that contributes to the education of women deserves to be recognised and promoted with encouragement. The author is also worried about the kind of education imparted. According to him these also should be some deepness with broadness in the education. There is lack of depth. There should be always a purpose or aim in one’s life or life seems dark, confusing, dissatisfied and bad.
3 — Therefore it is …………… ……………. define for yourselves.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘Women’s Education.’ It is written by S. Radhakrishan. In these lines, the author says that an aim in life is must with learning and skill.
Explanation: The author says the education which we get in the institutions like schools and colleges should not give just mere learning and skill but provide us an aim, a particular purpose. The aim as to be chosen by students Education gives a purpose to those who educate themselves and others.
4 — Apurpose which …………………………………. the present generation.
Reference to the context: These lines have been taken from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by S. Radhakrishnan. In these lines the author said that the world is constantly changing so our purpose should be relevant to the current scenario.
Explanation: The author says that everything changes with time. What was required and considered important centuries ago may not have the same importance in today’s life. It is because everything charges rapidly. Therefore whatever purpose or aim we choose must be according to the needs and current environment. Charging circumstances always should be considered.
5 — Compassion, daya, is ……………………………….. not more than that.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. Here, the author talks about compassion, mercy and kindness which in a common characteristic of women.
Explanation: Here the author says that women are more kind and generous than men. Kindness and compassion is a virtue of women. He says that he recently read a book which spoke about declination of
feminism and explained that it is because of the declination of mercy and kindness among women. In other words, kindness and mercy are considered as the natural characteristic of women. The author says that every human being should be compassionate otherwise they are not human without it. Thus it is important to have the qualities like sympathy, kindness and mercy for each and every person. Without such qualities we are just mere animals is the form of human.
6 There is a ……………………………. a human being.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by S. Radhakrishanan. In these lines the author gives the reference of an Upanishad. He tells us about the element of good life.
Explanation: The author says that dama, dana and daya are the main elements of a good life. According to author ‘dama’ means self-control. Everyone should command his wishes and lusts. Besides it, one should donate one’s things for the betterment of others. This is called ‘dana’. ‘Daya’ means mercy, that is the another element that makes life good. This is a supreme quality of a great man. We should develop these noble qualities in us. The result will be that our life will become happy and good.
7 — There are ever ……………………………………. a great nation.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. Here the author says that there are many great stories in our classics which will be implanted into us for moral courage, power and certainty.
Explanation: The author says that our classics are great and have many excited and amazing stories. These are the kind of stories which fills a person with internal and moral strength. It gives us courage and certainty. It will form a path for us to follow and conduct ourselves. The author says good women lead to a great civilization and good mothers lead to a great nation.
8 — When you talk……………… earn a livelihood.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by Dr. S. Radhakrishanan. Here the author talks about the purposes which education gives people in different fields.
Explanation: The opinion of author is that when we begin talking about education, we think of many aims. The people being taught should be given the detail knowledge of the world in which they live. They should be taught science, history and geography. This will enable them to get the full knowledge which will help is understanding their world. The people should be trained to get some technical skill which will make them able to earn a living.
9 — But what is there ……. ……………… …………….. animates the former.
Reference to the context: These lines are taken from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by S. Radhakrishnan. In these lines the author is questioning the kind of education give in our country. He also states that earning livelihood is not the sole aim of imparting education.
Explanation: Dr. Radhakrishnan discusses the specific aspect of women’s education in our country which are skill and information but such education requires some speciality in modern age of scientific advancement. Bread and butter is not sufficient for human life. No doubt, it is one of the requisite necessities of our life, but life is meant for something else. Our education should aim at preparing women to think about the world that surpasses space and time. The latter enlivens the former. We should go beyond this road and across it i.e. the spiritual world.
10 — In ancient times, ……….. ………….. subjection of women.
Reference to the context: These lines are taken from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. It is written by S. Radhakrishnan. It this passage the author explains that the older times were much prosperous for women than the current one.
Explanation: It is pointed out that the ancient times were very good for women. They had a respected position in the society. They were fully authorised to take part in religious functions of society. They were also familiar with Vedas and read other religious books. They were the partners of their male counterparts in chanting the Gayatri Mantra. There was no restriction on their education. Their rights were equal to man. The position of women in ancient society was not low comparison to the men. But when the ancient civilization began to decline, it had an adverse effect on the position of women. The main cause of the decay of such a high civilization was that women were forfeited from their dignified status.
11 — After Independence, ………………. ………………… into their own.
Reference to the context: These lines have been extracted from the chapter ‘Women’s Education’. In these lines the author tells the influence of Mahatma Gandhi over women empowerment.
Explanation: In this passage the author is speaking about Mahatma Gandhi. He tells about the efforts of Mahatma Gandhi. Due to the continuous efforts of Mahatma Gandhi, a revolution occurred in our country. Because of his struggle women realized their importance and value on their own in constructing the India.
Comprehension Read the following passages and answer the question given below them:
1 — You are …………………………….. your work.
Questions with their answer:
(i) In what type of age are women living today ?
Ans. Today women are living in an age of great opportunities for them in various fields like social work,
public like and administrations.
(ii) What type of women does the society require ?
Ans. Society requires women of disciplined minds and restrained manners.
(ii What should you do while doing a job to make a living for yourself ?
Ans. We should work with an honest and disciplined mind while doing a job to make a living for
(iv) When can you get the joy of you work ?
Ans. By working with an honest and disciplined mind we can get the joy of our work.
2 — Therefore it is …………. ……………. the present generation.
Questions with their answers:
(i) What is essential when you acquire the education in an institute ?
Ans. When we acquire the education in an institute then with leaving and skill it should give us a definite
purpose of life.
(ii) What does ‘Viveka’ give you ?
Ans. It gives us understanding of differentiating between right and wrong wisely.
(iii) Where does one get ‘Viveka’ from ?
Ans. One get ‘Viveka from ‘Vimarsarupini Vidya’
(iv) What elements should guide us in determining the purpose of our life ?
Ans. ‘Vidya’ gives us ‘Viveka’ and vimarsarupini vidya gives us a sense of what is right or wrong. These
elements guide us in determining the purpose of our life.
(v) What does the expression ‘adopted to the relevant needs’ stands for ?
Ans. It stands for the statement that one should choose his/her purpose in life according to the current time
and scenario. One’s aim should be according to the relevant requirements of the present generation.
3 — In this imperfect ……………………… go, my dear!
Questions with their answers:
(i) Why does the author recommended the study of great classics ?
Ans. The author recommended the study of great classics because it moulds and shapes the personality of
men and women in our society.
(ii) What is meant by the expression ‘inimitable fruits’ ? What are they ?
Ans. It means the study of our great classics and communion with great minds. There are the things which
mould men’s minds and hearts.
(iii) What is meant by the words dama, dana and daya ? What is their significance in human life ?
Ans. The words dama, dana and daya means self control, charity and compassion respectively. Their
significance in human life is that they constitute the essence of good life.
(iv) What did Lakshaman’s mother tell him when he was almost ready to leave for the forest ?
Ans. When Lakshamana was almost ready to leave for the forest, his mother told him to look upon Rama
as his father Dasaratha, to look upon Sita as his mother and to look upon the forest as Ayodhya.
4 — There is a famous ………….. …………… essentials of good life.
Questions with their answers:
(i) What are the two fruits of ‘Samsara’ ?
Ans. According to the author the two fruits of “Samsara’ are the study of great ancient literature and to
participate with great mighty minds.
(ii) Why should the classics be studied ?
Ans. The classics should be studied because they have power to shape our minds and hearts.
(iii) What is ‘da, da, da’ ? Ans’da, da, da’ were the essence of good life. They stand for dana, dana, daya.
(iv) What did the teacher explain ?
Ans. The teacher explained that ‘dana’, ‘dana’, ‘daya’ were the essence of good life.
(v) What constitutes the essence of good life ?
Ans. ‘dama’, ‘dana’ and ‘daya’constitutes the essence of good life.
.(vi) Who is ‘I’ in this passage ?
Ans. In this passage, ‘I’ is the author Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.
5 — In ancient times …………………………. into their own.
Questions with their answer:
(i) What place did our women occupy in ancient India ? Give examples.
Ans. In ancient times, our women head the ceremony of upanayana performed for them. They were
entitled to a study of vedas. They were also entitled to the chanting of the gayatri japa. All these
things were open to our women.
(ii) What accounts for the decay of our civilization, according to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan ?
Ans. Subjection or dependence of women is accounted for the decay of our civilization according to Dr.
(iii) What did Mahatma Gandhi do to bring about a revolution in our society after Independence ?
Ans. The continuous efforts of Mahatma Gandhi and his struggle brought about a revolution in our
society after independence.
(iv) What is meant by the statement ‘women are coming into their own’ ?
Ans. The statement ‘women are coming into their own’ means that if women are given opportunities and
they will understand their importance then their contribution will be more in the construction of
(v) How can it be said that women of ancient India were well educated ?
Ans. Women of ancient India had a respected position in the society. They were entitled to take part in
religious functions and were well aware of Vedas. They were entitled to the chanting of the Gayatri
Mantra. All these things were open to women.
Short Answer Type Questions Answer the following questions is not more than 30 words each:
1 — What are the opportunities available to women in our age ?
Ans. In our age women have various opportunities in various fields like in social work, public life and
administration. 2 — What kind of women does the society need today ?
Ans. Society needs the kind of women who are disciplined and restrained.
3 What is the importance of the study of classics in shaping the personality of the persons of our
Ans. The study of our great classics and communion with great minds are two fruits of inmitable quality.
These things mould men’s minds and hearts.
4 — What were the things women were entitled to in ancient India ?
Ans. In ancient times women were entitled to the study of vedas and chanting of the Gayatri Mantra.
5 — What constitutes the essence of the good life ? Ans. The essence of the good life constitutes ‘dama’, ‘dana’ and ‘daya’. It means self control, charity and
6 — What according to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan are the three important qualities of valuable life ?
Ans. Self control (dama), charity (dana) and daya (compassion) are the three important qualities of a
7 — What kind of education does Dr. S. Radhakrishnan recommended and why ?
Ans. Other than learning and skill, the students should be equipped with a definite purpose in their life. It is
because purpose in our life gives direction to it and helps to make life better.
8 In the Ramayana, when Lakshmana sets out for the forest, what did his mother tell him ?
Ans. When Lakshaman sets out for the forest then his mother tells him to look upon Rama as his father
Dasaratha, Sita as his mother and the forest as Ayodhya.
Long Answer Type Questions Answer the following question in not more than 150 words each:
1 — Write the Dr. S. Radhakrishnan’s views on women’s education.
Ans. Dr. Radhakrishnan was a great thinker and philosopher. He very well knew the importance of women’s
education in our country. He advocated a change in the education system. Girls educations in our country is not widespread. There are very few institutions for girls’ education. Such institutions are worthy of recognition and encouragement. He says that the kind of education that is given at present must not only be broad but should also be deep.
Our education lacks depth. It fails to give us insight into the mysteries of life. It should give us a definite purpose in life. Every girl has to define that purpose for herself. That purpose must be adapted to the relevant needs of the present generation. He says that the natural quality of women is compassion. They should cultivate this quality. They should also develop the quality of consideration and kindness. He lays emphasis on the study of great classics. Women should read the classics. The study of classics moulds our hearts and minds. They instil into us great moral strength. They lay down for us the lines on which we have to conduct ourselves. The chief purpose of education is not merely the acquiring of skill of information but the initiation into a higher life. Education should produce women who have an honest and disciplined mind.
2 — Why is women’s education important for the progress of our country ?
Ans. Although Dr. S. Radhakrishnan is talking about women’s education, some of his remarks are good for education to all. In addition to general opinion about education he also gives some points especially to women education because they are supposed to play an important role in building a nation. In the beginning Dr. Radhakrishnan speaks about the kind of women which are required by the society. He says that women’s education should be more widespread. It should be deep and must give a purpose in life. We should recognize and encourage the institutions that contribute to the education to girls. The author advises women to cultivate compassion which is main characteristic of women. He special praise to women through these lines, Give us good women, we will have a great civilization. Gives us good mother, we will have a great nation. Thus, Dr. Radhakrishnan exhorts women to play their crucial role in creating a great civilization and shaping a great nation. He regrets that women were neglected during the foreign rule over India. But he is full of hope when he says that women are now acquiring their real position of ancient glory in the society.
3 — What, according to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan is the main purpose of education ?
Ans. When people talk about education, they have generally the following aims in their views:
(a) Knowledge of the world: The people who are taught should be given knowledge and information
ofthe world in which they live. They subjects as Science, History and Geography enable them to get
such type of knowledge and information.
(b) Technical skill: People should be trained to acquire technical skill by which they can earn a
livelihood. Chief purpose of education: Dr. Radhakrishnan says that the chief purpose of education is not merely acquiring of technical skill or knowledge and information about this world. He adds that the chief purpose of education is to introduce us into a higher life. It means the introduction into a world which rises above this world of ours. Our world is confined by Space and Time. The chief purpose of education is to enable us to think deeply and rise above the worldly worries.
4 — What is the meant of a famous verse, Samsara visha vrikshasya ? Explain if according to Dr. S.Radhakrishnan.
Ans. There is a famous verse samsara visha vrikshasya. It means that in this imperfect world, samsara, there are two fruits of immitable quality. These are the study of our great classics and communion with great minds. These two are the things which mould men’s minds and hearts. The author Dr. S Radhakrishnan said that he was concerned that our great classics should be studies, the classics of all countries of which we are the inheritors. The essence of good life dama, dana, daya is the mark of a human being.
5 — What advice does Dr. S. Radhakrishnan give to Indian women to acquire perfect knowledge ?
Ans. Dr. Radhakrishnan is not satisfied with the education of Indian women are getting. Women education is not sufficiently widespread. So the institutions of women’s education should be encouraged. Their education should not be broad only out should also be deep. Their education is lacking in depth at present. So it must be purposeful. Science, history and geography give them the knowledge of the world only Technical knowledge helps them to earn a livelihood. But this is not true knowledge, They must be acquainted with a higher life that transcends the world of space and Time. For this they must study our great classics. Our classics are full of thrilling stories. They will enable them to shape their lives to higher ideas and lead their lives nobly. By studying them they will acquire the qualities of self-control, charity and compassion. These are the essential qualities of good life. Our old books point out the important of women’s education. So Dr. Radhakrishnan has said, “Give us good women, we will have a great civilization. Give us good mothers, we will have a great nation. Such is the importance of women’s education.
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